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Case studies / Friction
SF range: Substitution of tin sulphides through modification of oxidation properties of synthetic sulphides

The use of composite sulfides with a particular microstructure allows to reduce the content of Sn without compromising safety and wear

Tin sulphides are widely used by OE manufacturers. However, the high content of tin makes them very expensive and LME dependent.

The use of synthetic metal sulfides has been seen as one of the solutions for stabilization of coefficient of friction at high temperature and reduction in wear in copper-free formulations. Metal sulfides are converted in metal oxides during the braking, and this oxidation reaction affects the tribochemistry in the interface between pad and rotor. The study of the relationship in between the oxidation temperature of different metal oxides and the effect of those sulfides in the performance and wear of a copper-free formulation can help to bring a better understanding of the mechanism that makes the sulfides a good solution for copper-free formulations.

Our research has demonstrated that two sulfides of identical chemical composition can have different reactivity in front of oxygen and provide different degree of performance and wear protection. As a result, we developed our SF range of Iron /Tin sulphides Composites, which are not just mechanical mixes of different sulphides. Their unique microstructure allows us to modify the oxidation temperature compared with a mechanical mix of FeS and SnS of the same chemical composition.

With this change, we can get closer to the oxidation temperature of tin-only based sulphides, but reducing the content of tin and so the price level. Phenolic resin is the matrix of the brake pads and starts to decompose around 300ºC, in presence of oxygen and temperature, resulting in the degradation of the PAD surface. Our objective is now to confirm that there is an interaction between metal sulphides and resin, and the oxidation mechanism of both materials seems to be modified when they are blended. 

Comparative AKM test have been done to correlate the differences on oxidation temperature range with the friction performance in a NAO Cu-free friction material. SF series is a new option with improved cost-to-performance ratio. SF05 is recommended to replace SnS based compounds and SF10 and SF13 are recommended to replace SnS2 products. Please, contact us for more information.

Our team
Talent wins games, teamwork & intelligence win championships

Our multidisciplinary team includes tribologist, chemists and logistics experts. More than twenty years of experience and great knowledge of the market and applications allow us to support during all phases of the project, guaranteeing the quality and flexibility that the sector demands.

Our solutions
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      Case studies / Friction
      LM09: Replacing Sb2S3 without busting the bank
      LM09 is a synergistic composite designed to replace the dangerous antimony trisulfide in brake pad applications with minimum need of testing and reformulation.

      – LM09 is designed to provide high thermal conductivity to the pad

      – LM09 keeps the performance at high temperature and reduces wear

      – Can be used in all kinds of formulations. It helps build a stable transfer layer on PAD and ROTOR

      – Particle size distribution made it suitable for easy mixing and dispersion, and make it suitable for standard storage.

       

      Tested in a NAO type, copper-free formulation in replacement of Sb2S3, in volume, LM09 achieves a thin and homogenous transfer film on the pad surface, contributing to the stability of coefficient of friction and low wear in both pad and rotor

       

      Several studies reveal that occupations closely related to antimony have been more prone to cardiac diseases, skin irritations and digestive disorders.

      Moreover, Sb-subproducts has been reported to be partially soluble in physiological fluids and carcinogenic in laboratory animals, though for human beings is still under suspicion

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          Case studies / Friction
          Where are we coming from? From Asbestos-based to NAO Copper-free
          A joined effort among manufacturers, regulatory organizations and the automotive industry has brought a noticeable evolution on the composition of the friction materials

          All machine in movement needs to be stopped at some moment. The brake is responsible to turn this kinetic energy into heat and release it through the interface.

          This is the everlasting basis of the friction industry. Actually, during a normal braking, the disc is responsible to dissipate around 80 % of the heat generated by friction. The temperature can raise up to 600-700 ºC in rough conditions. As a result of the energy involved in this process, tribo-chemical reactions and erosion always take place.

          The chemical composition of the brake PAD then, is directly related with the performance of the whole brake system.

          Every time you stop your vehicle, a small amount of material is released in form of PM10 and PM2,5, small enough to be caught in air turbulence and easily enter human airways.

          Depending on their composition, can be quite harmful to wildlife as they might contain metals such as copper, chromium, lead, antimony and metal oxides.

          Considering that around 21% traffic-related PM10 emissions come from brake wear, automotive industry, raw material manufacturers and regulatory organizations have a shared responsibility to follow up dust emissions released during braking, and come up with innovative solutions to overcome this environmental threat.

          Up to the 1980's
          Asbestos
          Asbestos linings were used on virtually all vehicles. Asbestos was and still is an excellent fibre for brake linings. It offers good strength, temperature and chemical resistance, and is cheap compared to other materials that are used for the same purpose. But the physical properties that make asbestos such a good fibre also make it a hazardous substance, as it can produce asbestosis.
          The arrival of front-wheel drive
          Metal-based materials
          The arrival of front-wheel drive required semi-metallic front disc brake pads that could withstand higher operating temperatures. But they had their own troubles, such as the increase of noise and vibrations, and also the amount of grey/black dust produced. The industry evolved to offer a wide range of additives to equilibrate the formulas depending on the application and reduce these drawbacks.
          New challenges arrived
          NAO and Low-met
          Manufacturers started also to develop formulas with lower and even none content of steel (NAO) using alternative reinforcement materials such as rock wool, polymeric fibres and non-ferrous metals.

          Copper, brass and bronze became materials of general use because of their contribution to the performance and wear at high temperature and also because of their good NVH properties, and where in the origin of RIMSA as supplier for the friction industry, providing high quality recycled chips of brass and bronze.

          At rimsa we were pioneers on manufacturing lead-free brass and bronze chips 20 years ago

          On the other side, recyclability regulations in the latest 1990´s for vehicles in Europe (End-of-life directive 2000/53/EC) states a maximum content of metals such as Pb, Hg and Cr(VI) <0,1 %. and Cd <0.01 %. Friction materials were a source of Lead. It was common to use lead sulphide as lubricant and lead derivatives were regular contaminants in natural products such as pyrite (natural FeS2), sometimes up to 10%.

          Since more than 20 years ago, our unique manufacturing process enables us to offer the OE’s choice of lead-free CHIPS with the best value-for-money.

          These are the products used in this case, go take a look at its specs
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              Case studies / Friction
              REACH changes its normativity on the labeling and SDS of brass containing Pb
              As of January 5, 2021, manufacturers/distributors on the EU market of brake pads will not only to notify downstream customers of the presence of SVHCs but ECHA itself as well if it contains a whole contain > = 0.1 % Pb (SVHC)

              Recycled brass chips & swarfs are produced during the mechanization of big brass pieces to obtain products such as decorative pieces, taps, balustrades, profiles etc.

              These pieces must be machinable, otherwise it would be impossible to obtain the necessary shapes required on these fields. To do so, the standard alloy available in the industry contains 1 -3 % of Pb, as this metal improves its manufacturability. 

              So far, CLP considered that an alloy is considered a mixture, that, if it do not present any hazard to human health by inhalation, ingestion or contact with skin or the aquatic environmental in the form they are placed on the market, do not need CLP label. 

              What has changed is that lead, even in its massive form, as agreed in ATP09 at REACH Registration, if it is in a concentration 1-3 % it will contribute to the classification of the mixture with the following indications (which must be indicated on the label) :

               · Repr. 1A, H360FD: May damage fertility. May damage the unborn child

               · Lact. H362: May cause harm to breast-fed children

               · STOT RE 2, H373: May cause damage to central  nervous system, blood and kidneys through prolonged or repeated exposure by inhalation and ingestion

              At rimsa, we manufacture our own alloy on a unique completely dry process without including lead on the mixture

              According to Law 8/2010, not labeling a product according to CLP (being aware of its dangers) is considered a serious offense, penalized with fines from 6.001 € to 85.000 € 

              Therefore, the alloy must be labeled with lead hazards and the SDS must be updated from June 2020, following the indications below:

              So, for those companies using the standard lead-containing brass in the industry, to avoid this new regulation, must remove this material from their formulations?

              Obviously not, taking the lead from the mixture, all these companies will be able to continue using this fundamental product on so many formulations. But lead-free brass is not a standard on the industry and the well-known chopped lead-free brass wools become excessively expensive due to its manufacturing process

              A large number of OE and Aftermarket manufacturers, including the big groups on friction industry, have already chosen our well-known ecoChip as their seamless ally to remove lead of their formulations and we want to share our expertise with those companies who want to go one step further on their ecological commitment

              On the other hand, many other companies might consider to replace brass for a different material, and we want to be on their side too

              The latest results from our trustworthy partners reveals that our ecoCast ,certified EN GJL 250 cast iron chips , can replace brass chips and maintain the same performance on existing formulations

               

              These chips are able to provide heat conductivity and damping properties thanks to the graphite flakes segregated from the matrix, which turns this material into a self-lubricated chip that can provide a wear reduction and in the overall, become an alternative material to brass for those partners willing to remove any copper-containing product from their formulation

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                  Case studies / Friction
                  Controlling the degradation of the phenolic resin: The role of titanates on a friction material.
                  A clean PAD ensures the stability of its properties during its lifetime

                  To obtain a top-notch friction material, it is not enough to protect the phenolic resin. Indeed, it is a key parameter the control the performance and wear of the finished product. However, HOW this organic binder decompose is a crucial factor that will determine the comfort and the NVH properties of the pad.  Can we control this? Let’s go deep on that.

                  We start from the fact that the mentioned phenolic resin transforms into a sticky substrate on the friction surface when it degradates. And, as if it was like a smoker/non-smoker lung, a cleaner surface will help us to avoid groan, noise and vibrations, while obtaining a smooth and stable braking. And how can we do so? The answer is on titanates.

                  By intervening on the thermal decomposition reaction of the phenolic resin, they helps to decompose the long chain, crossed organic polymer that is the phenolic resin into light, small size molecules (monomers, dimers). These are able to volatilize more easily, instead of large size molecules that would get gripped over the friction surface.

                  TITAN series from TAM Ceramics are a cost-effective alternative to the common titanates available in the market that ensures fibre-free morphology, avoiding health issues.

                  This way, we obtain a cleaner surface and so, when the counterpart contacts the friction material, we do not have that viscous residue between them which, as you might have guessed, will help us to reduce the CoF (μ) amplitude and improve μ stability, which are straightly related with the NVH and groan properties of a friction material.

                  Nowadays, there are a wide range of titanates with different morphologies and chemical compositions in the market. However, titanates commonly available in friction industry are a fibrous product with health issues. To make them fibre-free either the production costs are increased or they contain other metals on their composition.

                  On that lead, since 2019 rimsa has join forces with TAM Ceramics to tackle the challenges concerning this particular aspect of a friction material performance with innovative products specially developed for friction industry.

                   

                  TAM ceramics high quality and cost-effective alternatives includes the new TITAN-S (fibre-safe sodium titanate), while the new TITAN-PS grades are a new option of fibre-safe potassium titanates that contain lower percentage of K2O. TITAN-PV grade guarantees a double digit 0,00% of fibres and ultra-fine particle size.

                  All them are truly fibre-safe products because doesn’t make fibres while synthesized and have the same mechanism of reaction than the commonly available potassium titanate. Also, TAM collaborates with Buffalo University and Fraunhofer Institut to guarantee by certifications their products are fiber-free.

                  AKM test evince the similar performance of both sodium and potassium titanates regarding Intra-Stop behaviour and NVH properties, as both share the same mechanism of reaction. TITAN-S also stabilizes the CoF while reducing wear compared to potassium titanate.

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                      Case studies / Friction
                      Different strategies to remove copper from existing formulations
                      What started many years ago in the political corridors in the US, has risen as a priority project for almost all material development laboratories across the globe

                      Being automotive such a globalized industry, a concern that has sprung up on a specific market, can quickly become into a worldwide trend if it is properly justified by a greater good.

                      A clear example of it can be seen on the friction industry. What started many years ago in Washington and California, when copper considered as main cause for the extinction of salmon and rainbow trout, due to its neurotoxic behaviour in fish , has become into a priority project for almost all material development laboratories across the globe. Nevertheless, even there are still some grey areas to clarify, it is clear that the main brake system & vehicle manufacturers are already requiring copper-free formulations

                      Friction industry is going on this lead but that’s not an easy job, as not a single solution has emerged as direct replacement for this material with unique properties. Engineers and friction material formulators must come up with new strategies to replace this non-ferrous metal if they want to stay on the run.

                      In our experience, there are different strategies to address this challenge, involving different materials depending on the scenario

                      To begin with, for those companies using this metal on its pure form, they can start by reducing the %Cu of it, as 5% Cu will be allowed until 2025. We will address this case more deeply on an incoming case study. 

                      Other companies, however, are using already a very small amount of copper on the overall of their formulations. Either because they are using a brass instead of copper or because the %Cu by itself is very low.

                      In this case, our certified EN GJL 250 cast iron chips, better known as ecoCast, can become an alternative material to brass for those partners willing to remove any copper-containing product from their formulation, thanks to their overall properties.

                      These chips are able to provide heat conductivity and damping properties thanks to the graphite flakes segregated from the matrix, which turns this material into a self-lubricated chip that can provide a wear reduction

                      We are glad that so many companies have been able to develop their own Copper-free materials by using rimsa’s enviroLube as their key additive. Why so?

                      Finally, other companies have opted to create new copper-free formulations either by reformulating an existing copper-containing mix or creating a new one.

                      The key point to achieve a balanced formulation goes through being able to create a stable transfer layer while protecting phenolic resin from degradation in order to protect the integrity of the whole friction material.

                      The high heat dissipation capacity of copper combined with its ability to create primary plateaus makes impossible to find a direct replacement. So, if there is not a harmonized solution, there’s at least a successful strategy to address this challenge?

                      EnviroLube differential chemical behaviour has been proved effective to provide optimal performance, even replacing copper in existing formulations. Now is being used in Cu-free OE, OES and AM applications all around the globe. Depending on the grade, our customers will find the right choice for their application

                      It is a family of high-performance additives that contain low melting point phases, which undergo an endothermic reaction. It provides cooling capacity, helping not only to increase heat removal capacity, but also to reduce the working temperature, considered a key parameter to be aware of either on NAO as well as aluminium-based formulations

                      Moreover, due to its particular composition, it releases in a controlled manner tin sulfide in the working surface, which is generated in-situ on the working surface of the friction material, helping on the high temperature sections to maintain good performance

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                          Case studies / Friction
                          The green alternative to the alumina industry
                          Roots from plants can absorb the ionic species of metals such as aluminium in acid soils

                          Al2O is a standard abrasive used in friction materials to increase the coefficient of friction and keep clean the rotor surface. It derives however in aluminium contamination when in service, aluminum oxide is released to the environment. Roots from plants can absorb the ionic species of metals such as aluminium in acid soils, which has a clear environmental impact, including the growth of these plants due to the bioaccumulation capacity of this element. Furthermore, there are also articles suggesting a possible connection between the increase of the concentration of  Al3+ ions in the environment due to human activity and some neurotoxic diseases in human beings

                          Ironically, the increase in the use of the “green” metal can bring massive disruption to the supply chain

                          It is considered like that, as among other reasons, it is a key material to reduce weight. However, China is the largest producer of aluminum and Alumina, and uses mainly coal for power. The worrying increase of smog and airborne particulate matter has forced China to boot on his “blue skies” politics, which will cut the production up to 30 %, due to its enormous environmental impact, which would derive in a massive disruption of the supply chain

                          Zirconium compounds are getting more and more applications as abrasives in friction industry and, despite their usual higher cost, do not present the previously commented hazards (data provided by Zircon Industry Association).

                          They can come from natural, like the zirconium silicate, or synthetic origin, like the zirconium oxide. Moreover, Zircon Industry Association (ZIA) reveals the lower environmental impact of zircon products in comparison with Al2O3

                          ecoZir - Zircomium silicate
                          Being a natural product, it is essential to control the origin of zirconium silicate to guarantee stable properties and results. Our ecoZir comes from partnership with reliable and established sources in the industry, allowing us to ensure very consistent particle size distribution and chemical composition.
                          T-TRACS - Zirconium oxide
                          Furthermore, we are able to offer also aeronautical quality zirconium oxide as we are official distributors of referential manufacturer TAM Ceramics for friction applications. T-TRACS monoclinic zirconia powders have been produced consistently for over 50 years by electrically fusion of zirconium silicate and subsequent dry-milling operation.
                          Ultra-fine grades
                          ULTRA-FINE grades (d50 below 0,9 microns) can be obtained by exclusive wet-milling process.
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                              Case studies / Friction
                              What is polyacrilonitrile (PAN)?

                               

                               

                              Polyacrylonitrile is the most common precursor used to make carbon fiber.

                              Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is a synthetic resin prepared by polymerization of acrylonitrile.

                              It belongs to the important family of acrylic resins and is a tough and rigid thermoplastic material that, resistant to most solvents and chemicals, burns slowly and has a low permeability to gases.

                              Fibers obtained by precision cutting in a wide range of cutting diameters and lengths are used for REINFORCEMENT in a wide variety of industrial applications. These include the manufacture of adhesives, castings, composite materials (“composites”), filters, acid battery plates, paints, paper, sealants and refractory materials.

                              It is considered an added-value polymer as, besides of reinforing the application where it is included, this material has intumescent behaviour (fire protective) and several studies reveal an increase of the matrix-fibre union strength compared to other traditional fibres on mortars and pavements.

                              The acrylic PAN fibre pulp is as an alternative to partially replace other expensive fibres such as aramid or even asbestos for the manufacture of brake pads and clutch discs. TGA shows its high thermal stability and carbonization process, keeping 40% of its initial weight.

                               

                              RIMSA supplies the following varieties of polyacrylonitrile fiber

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                                  Case study / Fricción
                                  Our quality department

                                   

                                   

                                  At rimsa we dedicate all our efforts to ensure excellent quality in each of our products and services, guaranteeing the satisfaction of all customers.

                                  Our quality department, made up of highly qualified people with vast experience, guarantee the management of all processes according to the ISO9001: 2015 standard.

                                   

                                  We are committed to continuous improvement in order to optimize our productivity and quality, which begins with the selection of suppliers and strict quality control of all raw materials. From here we adhere to strict control plans that we apply in all operating processes, until the product is received by the customer.

                                  We are proud that this effort is recognized by customers, who in the 2019 satisfaction survey rated us with the highest marks in terms of product quality, confidence in rimsa and responsiveness, having stated 52% of the same an increase in the quality perceived in the last 5 years.

                                   

                                  Thus, we aspire this 2020 to meet for the sixth consecutive year our goal of 0% customer rejection of manufactured product (0 defects), and for the fourth consecutive year of our commercialized products.

                                  We guarantee the highest quality standards

                                  Having made the recycled product the base of our initial growth, our objective is to ensure that the raw material received and the intermediate product are properly analyzed and obey the specified parameters in order to guarantee a homogeneous final product, which complies not only with the specification, but ensure stable performance.

                                  Regarding the products that we commercialize, the selection of suppliers is essential. From rimsa we guarantee compliance with the specifications before each shipment, with a specific control plan.

                                  Characterized by an excellent Quality Management System

                                  Rimsa has been certified by ISO9001 since 2001. As a company that assumes the principles and requirements established by ISO 9001, we adhere to our commitment to quality and recognize that customer satisfaction and continuous improvement are two essential elements. for our organization.

                                  This year 2020 we will also certify our commitment to continuous improvement in environmental management, as we will complete the integration process of ISO14001. We believe that this is a universal tool that allows evaluating an organization’s efforts to achieve adequate and reliable environmental protection.

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                                      Case studies / Friction
                                      The seamless ally for lead removal in railway industry
                                      Railway brake blocks are one of the most complex branches of the friction industry

                                      Engineers and designers must come up with formulations balanced in several characteristics:

                                      – LOW  SQUEAL: Due to the high impact involved in railway applications

                                      – HIGH HEAT DISSIPATION CAPACITY: Due to the high energy involved in railway applications

                                      – WEAR AND CORROSION RESISTANCE: To reduce wear rate and increase the service life of the blocks

                                      – LIGHT WEIGHT: And stable friction coefficient

                                      – ACCEPTABLE COST: Versus performance

                                      Cast iron blocks were often used on older vehicles whereas composite blocks are now employed for newer braking systems.

                                      A wide range of materials are used to achieve the mentioned balance.

                                      Brass is a very common additive used to improve wet friction and recovery. However, recycled chips and swarf often contain a significative lead content, and lead restrictions got stricter along last years on industry.

                                      We are happy that many renowned railway manufacturers have chosen rimsa’s well-known ecoChip lead-free brass chips as their seamless replacement to lead-containing brass chips, while keeping all the good properties of their existing formulations. 

                                       

                                      We are also proud to be part of this ecological change, as our unique dry manufacturing process enables us to offer the OE’s choice of lead-free brass chips with the best value for money

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                                          Case studies / Friction
                                          Reducing 40% of copper content on existing formulations is at just one test ahead
                                          The copper-free race set on 2021 its first goal. On that point, friction material sold in Washington and California will only allow 5% copper on its composition.

                                          Although the seed of this challenge was planted on the mentioned states, this environmental concern has grown up until become into a prevailing assignment for all material engineers across the globe. This matter goes beyond a mere ecologic requirement, but also has become one of the main drivers on our industry, as brake systems & vehicle manufacturers are requiring low-copper and copper-free formulations as a mandatory requirement, in contradistinction to the trend of not so many years ago, when seeing those reddish shiny spots on the brake PAD was a mark-up to stand out from your competitors.

                                          The functionality of copper lays down on its capacity to remove heat from the PAD interface due to its high thermal conductivity, while providing also a reinforcement and forming primary plateaus, increasing the fade resistance and reducing the wear.

                                          Not a single solution has risen as a direct replacement, but many companies have some urgency to, at least, reduce the content of copper on their formulations, although at the same time, they cannot reduce the quality of their final products.

                                          The immediate choice to consider is brass, as this is the alloy with lower cost and with the most similar properties, though with a reduced copper content. However recycled brass chips & swarfs available in the industry contains 1 -3 % of Pb, unlike copper, which is usually availabe in its pure form, without Pb on its composition.

                                          Our well known ecoChip is a lead-free alloy that has proven effective to replace copper on any application reducing 40% of copper content while keeping the same performance on existing formulations. AKM test comparison on 5% and 10% vol straight replacement demonstrate that it’s never been so easy to remove a significant percentage of this non-ferrous element from your friction material to fit the legislation in force until 2025.

                                          Unlike recycled chips, our manufacturing process guarantees an ultrahigh quality in terms of chemical stability and consistency of its properties. It is monitored during all the process and undergoes strict quality controls, ensuring a heavy metal-free with Pb content <0.005%. A large number of OE and AM companies has chosen ecoChip as their seamless ally to reduce %Cu on their existing formulations and we want to share our expertise with those willing to go one step further on this ecological need.

                                          Friction
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                                            Contact us
                                            We would love to talk about your next project

                                            Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or requirement you may have. We will be happy to collaborate with you

                                            Visit us

                                            Armenteres s / n – Pol.Ind. MATACÀS- Nave 21 08980

                                            Sant Feliu de Llobregat Barcelona, Spain

                                            Call us

                                            +34 93 666 46 11 / +34 635 519 002

                                            Write to us

                                            friction@rimsa.com

                                            Or leave us a message and one of our agents will contact you






                                              Case studies / Friction
                                              The lead-free alloy for heavy duty that saves up to 20% of cost.

                                              ecoBronze are heavy metal-free bronze chips and fibers

                                              Our unique dry manufacturing process enables us to offer an OE quality product with the best value-for-money.

                                              Several grades with different particle sizes and chemical composition, to meet customer requirements

                                              – Bronze contains Tin inclusions distributed that provide lubricity and cooling, reducing wear and improving the NVH characteristics

                                              Saves up to 20% compared with traditional bronze chopped wools

                                              The high thermal conductivity provides heat dissipation capacity, contributing to the stabilization of μ and reducing wear

                                               

                                               

                                              ecoBronze keep the benefits of bronzewhile eliminating the presence of lead. Several grades allow you to find the right choice.

                                              Friction
                                              Go back to friction case studies
                                              back to all case studies
                                              see friction products
                                              Stay updated! Subscribe to our newsletter and receive monthly updates about the future of the industry






                                                Contact us
                                                We would love to talk about your next project

                                                Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or requirement you may have. We will be happy to collaborate with you

                                                Visit us

                                                Armenteres s / n – Pol.Ind. MATACÀS- Nave 21 08980

                                                Sant Feliu de Llobregat Barcelona, Spain

                                                Call us

                                                +34 93 666 46 11 / +34 635 519 002

                                                Write to us

                                                friction@rimsa.com

                                                Or leave us a message and one of our agents will contact you